Keywords : primary hypothyroidism

Cardiovascular Manifestations of Primary Hypothyroidism

Ahmed Shaker Al-Zaidi; Adil S .Abdul-Ghafour; Abdulla J Minshed Al-Farttoosi

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 113-119

Primary hypothyroidism accounts for 90 to 95 %of all cases of hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone deficiency increases systemic vascular resistance, decreases contractility and slow the heart rate .
OBJECTIVE: To investigate cardiac changes in primary hypothyroidism.
In this prospective study 36 patients with untreated primary hypothyroidism were compared with 30 healthy persons. Cardiovascular evaluation of all subjects had been made both clinically and by the following studies :Chest X-Ray, electrocardiography, serum lipid and Echocardiography.
The main cardiac manifestations of hypothyroidism were: Easy fatigability( 88.9 %(, exertional dyspnea )75%o),obesity or gaining weight( 66.7 %(, sinus bradycardia ) 47.2 %(and peripheral edema(11.1 %(Electrocardiography showed sinus bradycardia in( 47%( low QRS voltage in )33.3%( , flat or inverted T wave(27.8%), prolonged QT interval )19.5%), first degree heart block in( 19.5 %(
.Echocardiography showed the following :a decrease in global systolic function, asymmetric sepal
hypertrophy in )91.6%) Pericardial effusion in )38.8%).Low QRS voltage was found to be related to thyroxin level and age of the patient .No correlation was found between heart rate and thyroxin level.
Primary hypothyroidism accompanied by significant changes in cardiovascular system which may explain the development of premature coronary artery disease in these patients.

Influence of Primary Hypothyroidism on Serum Leptin Level

Aras A. Abdullah; Abdul Hussein A. Farage; Maryam S. Mohammad

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 120-124

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Leptin is the protein product of the ob gene, secreted by adipocytes. It has been suggested that it may plays an important role in regulating appetite and energy expenditure, but beside that, little is known about the physiological actions of leptin in humans. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a possible influence of primary hypothyroidism on serum leptin levels. METHODS: Fifty-six newly diagnosed patients with primary hypothyroidism (40 females and 16 males) and 32 normal controls matched for age, ethnic status and body mass index (BMI) were studied. Body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), thyroid function(using enzyme-linked immunoflourescent assay) and serum levels of leptin, thyroid autoantibodies (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay) and lipid profile(measured by enzymatic colourimeteric assays) were assessed in all studied subjects. RESULTS: No significant difference in serum leptin levels was recorded between hypothyroid patients and controls (16.3±14.9; 14.8 ± 12.9, P> 0.05), but women in each group had significant higher leptin concentrations than men (patients: 19.6 ±16.3 vs. 8.3 ±5.0; controls: 19.0 ±14.4 vs. 7.7 ±4.1; P< 0.05). Serum levels of cholesterol (p<0.002), LDL-cholesterol (p<0.004) and atherogenic ratio (p<0.03) were generally higher in patients than controls. The serum leptin concentration correlated positively with BMI within both patients (r=0.32; p<0.016) and controls (r=0.28; p<0.024). However, no association was demonstrated between values of serum T3, T4, TSH, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and thyroid auto antibodies. CONCLUSION: Circulating thyroid hormones do not appear to play any significant effect on leptin levels in patients with primary hypothyroidism.