Undiagnosed Isolated Systolic Hypertension in Adult; Profile and Associated Factors
Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal,
2021, Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 380-388
Isolated systolic hypertension is defined as Systolic blood pressure ≥140 and a Diastolic blood pressure <90mm Hg. The rate of isolated systolic hypertension increased with increasing age in both sexes, isolated systolic hypertension, more than any other hypertension subtype, increases the risk for stroke and coronary heart diseases and is associated with many complications.
To assess the prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension among the adult population in Baghdad.
A cross-sectional study using a convenient sample from the outpatient clinic in Baghdad aged (18-60) year. Data was collected using a questionnaire as a direct interview, with measurements of weight, height and blood pressure.
A total of 800 adults, were included in the final analysis. Males constituted about 52.1% of the study population. The prevalence of undiagnosed isolated systolic hypertension was 11.4%. Four factors were found to be significant independent risk factors. Age (increasing one year will increase the risk of isolated systolic hypertension by (OR=1.03), illiteracy (OR=1.4), BMI (OR=1.08), and male gender (OR=1.77).
Undiagnosed Isolated systolic hypertension is common and increased with age in both men and women. And more common among males with association with low education and BMI.
- Theodore A. Kotchen. Hypertensive Vascular Disease, In: J. Larry Jameson, Anthony S. Fauci, Dennis L. Kasper, et al (ed). Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 19th Edition; 2012: 1611-26.
- Raghdaa Sadeq, Riyadh K Lafta. Knowledge, attitude and practice about hypertension in hypertensive participants attending hospitals in Baghdad, Iraq. South East Asia Journal Of Public Health 2017;7:29-34. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/seajph.v7i1.34676
- Michel Burnier, Suzanna Oparil,Krzysztof Narkiewicz and Sverre E.Kjeldsen. New 2017 American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology guideline for hypertension in the adults: major paradigm shifts, but will they help to fight against the hypertension disease burden?,blood pressure,27,2,62-65. https://doi.org/10.1080/08037051.2018.1430504
- Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K, et al. 2013 ESH/ESC guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J. 2013;34:2159-219 https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/eht151
- Ekundayo OJ, Allman RM, Sanders PW. Isolated systolic hypertension and incident heart failure in older adults: a propensitymatched study. Hypertension. 2009;53:458-465doi: 10.1161/Hypertension AHA.108.119792. Epub 2009 .
- Csaba Farsan. Isolated Systolic Hypertension: Cardiovascular risk and treatment benefits. European society of hypertension scientific newsletter. 2001;2:1-2.
- Ekundayo OJ, Allman RM, Sanders PW. Isolated systolic hypertension and incident heart failure in older adults: a propensitymatched study. Hypertension. 2009;53:458-65doi: 10.1161/Hypertension AHA.108.119792. Epub 2009.
- Grebla RC, Rodriguez CJ, Borrell LN, Pickering TG. Prevalence and determinants of isolated systolic hypertension among young adults: the 1999-2004 US National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey. J Hypertens. 2010;28:15–23. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e328331b7ff
- Franklin SS, Jacobs MJ, Wong ND, L’Italien GJ, Lapuerta P. Predominance of isolated systolic hypertension among middle-aged and elderly US hypertensives: analysis based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III. Hypertension. 2001;37:869–874. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11244010.
10. Nasser A. Al-Hamdan, Isolated Systolic Hypertension among Adults in Saudi Arabia: Prevalence,Risk Factors, Predictors and Treatment - Results of a National Survey: Epidemiology (sunnyvale) 2015,5:206doi:10.4172/2161-1165.1000206
11. Carlos Cristi-Montero. An integrative methodology for classifying physical activity level in apparently healthy populations for use in public health. American Journal of public health 2017; 41:1-6. doi: 10.26633/RPSP.2017.161
12. Ali A. Saadon Al-Ghuzi*1 and Jasim N. Al-Asadi2. Prevalence and Socio-DemographicDeterminants of Hypertension in Thi-Qar Governorate: A Household Survey.2014; 802-815. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, American Journal of Advanced Drug Delivery
13. Abdul-Hussein F. G, Omran S. H ,STUDY ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENT: THE MEDIICAL JOURNAL OF BASRAH UNIIVERSIITY.2011; Vol 29, No.1&2. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=A+STUDY+ON+THE+DISTRIBUTION+OF+BLOOD+PRESSURE+MEASUREMENTS+AMONG+UNIVERSITY+STUDENTS&hl=en&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart
14. Asgari S, Khalili D, Mehrabi Y, Kazempour-Ardebili S, Azizi F, Hadaegh F. Incidence and risk factors of isolated systolic and diastolic hypertension: a 10 year follow-up of the Tehran Lipids and Glucose Study. Blood pressure. 2016;25(3):177-83. doi: 10.3109/08037051.2015.1116221.
15. Midha T, Idris M, Saran R, Srivastava A, Singh S. Isolated Systolic Hypertension and its Determinants - A Cross-sectional Study in the Adult Population of Lucknow District in North India. Indian J Community Med. 2010;35(1):89-93. doi: 10.4103/0970-0218.62579.
16. Gupta A, Negi P, Gupta B, Bhardwaj A, Sharma B. Isolated systolic hypertension among office workers in north Indian town. Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 2006;31:109-10.
17. Xu C, Sun Z, Zheng L, Zhang D, Li J, Zhang X, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for isolated systolic hypertension in the rural adult population of Liaoning Province, China. Journal of International Medical Research. 2008;36:353-6.
18. Yuichiro Yano, MD, PhD, Jeremiah Stamler, MD, Daniel B. Garside, etal .Isolated Systolic Hypertension in Young and Middle-Aged Adults and 31-Year Risk for Cardiovascular Mortality: The Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry Study. 2015.; 327 – 335.
19. Ahmed S, Pervin S, Biswas T, Chowdhury MAH, Hasnat MA, Shuvra MMR. Undiagnosed Isolated Systolic and Diastolic Hypertension Subtypes and Their Correlates in Bangladesh: A Nationwide Survey. Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2019;10(1):12-9. doi: 10.24171/j.phrp.2019.10.1.04.
20. Clara JG, De Macedo ME, Pego M. Prevalence of isolated systolic hypertension in the population over 55 years old. Results from a national study. Revista portuguesa de cardiologia : orgao oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology : an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology. 2007;26(1):11-8. https://europepmc.org/abstract/med/17427833
21. Husain K, Ansari RA, Ferder L. Alcohol-induced hypertension: Mechanism and prevention. World J Cardiol. 2014;6(5):245-52. doi: 10.4330/wjc.v6.i5.245
22. Woodward M, Tsukinoki-Murakami R, Murakami Y, Suh I, Fang X, Ueshima H, et al. The epidemiology of stroke amongst women in the Asia–Pacific region. Women’s Health. 2011;7:305-17.
23. Arima H, Murakami Y, Lam TH, Kim HC, Ueshima H, Woo J, et al. Effects of prehypertension and hypertension subtype on cardiovascular disease in the Asia-Pacific Region. Hypertension. 2012;59:1118-23.
24. Collaboration APCS. Systolic blood pressure, diabetes, and the risk of cardiovascular diseases in the Asia–Pacific region. Journal of hypertension. 2007;25:1205-13 https://doi.org/10.1097/00004872-200304000-00013
25. Tanaka H, Dinenno FA, Monahan KD, Clevenger CM, DeSouza CA, Seals DR. Aging, habitual exercise, and dynamic arterial compliance. Circulation. 2000;102:1270-5. https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/01.CIR.102.11.1270.
26. Rehill N, Beck CR, Yeo KR, Yeo WW. The effect of chronic tobacco smoking on arterial stiffness. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2006;61:767-73. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1365-2125.2006.02630.x
27. Scicchitano P, Gesualdo M, Carbonara S, Palmiero P, Nazzaro . What's New and What Gaps in 2013 European Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension: A Reappraisal. Cardiology and Angiology: 3: 181-191 (2015) An International Journal.
- Article View: 55
- PDF Download: 81