Prevalence and Risk Factors for Congenital Anomalies in Mosul City
Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal,
2012, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 458-470
Congenital anomalies define as abnormalities of body structure that originated before birth, about 3% of all children are born with a serious structural defect that interferes with normal body function and can lead to lifelong handicap or even early death. There is a variation in the frequency of congenital anomalies in different populations.
To determine the prevalence of the easily identifiable congenital anomalies also to estimate the risk factors which may predispose to anomalies and pattern of distribution of congenital anomalies of newborn in Mosul city.
In a cross-sectional study, charts of forty six thousand and seven hundred seventy five deliveries including live births and stillbirths in Al-Batool Teaching Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology , during the period from January -2009 to December-2010. The anomalies were then grouped according to the organ, system involvement, gender, maternal age, consanguinity, mortality rate, and mother’s natal history.
A total of 323 cases of fetal congenital anomalies were detected, central nervous system were the most common abnormalities while complex congenital malformation was second in rank. The prevalence of anomalies was 0.69%. The majority of fetal malformation was seen in primigravida furthermore the maternal age between20-24years was the largest age group that had congenital anomalies. Mean gestational age at delivery was 36 weeks as well as the mean gestational age at diagnosis of anomaly by ultrasound was 30week. Fetal malformations had predilection to female fetuses, with male to female ratio1:1.09, in addition to 2.167% of ambigunity. Overall perinatal mortality rate was 79.25%.
Congenital anomalies are one of the most important causes of fetal deaths. The present study showed a high incidence of congenital malformations in the young age group and among primi gravida woman. The commonest associated risk factors was consanguineous marriage the frequency of which may be reduced by creating awareness regarding the avoidance of consanguineous marriages . anencephaly was the most prevalent anomaly detected. So proper and timely counseling, regular antenatal care. folate supplementation especially during the most sensitive period of embryogenesis is essential to avoid major congenital malformation for future pregnancy.
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