Epistaxis Etiology and Management
Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal,
2014, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 230-234
Epistaxis is one of the commonest medical emergencies. It affects all age groups and both sexes. The causes may be local or systemic. Trauma is considered to be a major etiological factor. Various treatment protocols are utilized to control epistaxis depending upon the type, severity and cause of bleeding.
To show most etiological factures that causes epistaxis and who we manage each case by different method.
MATERIALS AND METHODS :
This descriptive study was designed to evaluate the etiology and efficacy of management of epistaxis.210 patient underwent prospective evaluation in the otolaryngology department of Al Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital . Standard principles where followed in the management.
This study demonstrated a bimodal distribution with incidence peaks below25 years and above50 years of age. Males affected more than females (1:1.16) . Anterior nasal bleeding was noted in the majority of patients. Anterior nasal packing was the most effective method of controlling anterior epistaxis followed by chemical cautery. While posterior bleeding was controlled by posterior nasal packing and anterior nasal packing. The most common cause was found to be trauma followed by hypertension.
Epistaxis affects all age groups and it has a bimodal age presentation, it affects both sexes equally. Anterior nasal bleeding is more common than posterior bleeding .Epistaxis may be controlled with chemical or electrical cautery if the bleeding point is visible. In case of failure to localize or access a bleeding point or profuse bleeding, anterior nasal packing can effectively control majority of epistaxis cases. Foley s catheter is a good option that can be used for posterior nasal packing. Gelfoam may be used for controlling epistaxis in cases of bleeding disorders, when there is mucosal ooze.
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